Chronic pain conditions, which affect the axial back and radiate to the extremities, affect a large population. The results in pronounced disability and a high socioeconomic burden. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain was limited.
Although local anaesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness due to the acidic pH in the areas of inflammation. Reactive oxygen species in the excessive amount of (ROS) is common to induce pain and inflammation.
This study aims to summarise published and evidence-based guidelines with regards to utilising Spinal Cord sTIMULATION (SCS), including patient selection, perioperative management, complication mitigation strategies, disease indication, and device selection.
"Failed back surgery syndrome" (FBSS) termed as lumbar postsurgical patients continue to suffer persistent pain and limited function. This research evaluates clinical trial data for the treatment of FBSS patients. FBSS treatments will determine to assist clinicians for FBSS patients in choosing the most effective options.
A migraine is a debilitating condition which often starts at puberty and mostly affects individuals between 35 and 45 years. It is the third most common disease in the world (after dental caries and tension-type headache) with an approximated global prevalence of 14.7% (around 1 in 7 people).
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