It has been observed that the more visible features of nervous system sensitization are associated with more severe symptomatology, including those with knee osteoarthritis (OA). In clinical practice, more knowledge regarding the role of nervous system sensitization in symptom progression in knee OA would be an added factor. The relation between features of nervous system sensitization and responder status has not been studied in a cohort of individuals with knee OA referred for physiotherapy management.
Migraine is a neurological disorder that produces substantial disability for patients and has significantly increase the costs of healthcare system over 78 billion dollars per year. Amongst the numerous treatment options available for its prevention, Riboflavin is considered as safe and effective prophylactic therapy. However, there is lack of evidence reporting the present role of Riboflavin in preventing migraine.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the principal causes of pain and disability. For disease prevention and overall treatment, proper health-related behavior becomes a much critical factor in maintaining optimal health status.
The non-surgical treatments for knee osteoarthritis (OA) lack effectiveness in terms of providing complete pain relief. Therefore, scientists are exploring new treatment options to control the symptoms and maintain joint function. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) offers a promising and effective nonsurgical remedy for the treatment of knee OA.
Reliable and valid measures of pain intensity are required for the evaluation of the efficacy of pain treatments with accuracy. But, the most regularly used pain intensity scales like Numerical Rating Scales (NRSs), Visual Analog Scales, and Verbal Rating Scales (VRSs)-are considered to measure mainly pain intensity or the magnitude of felt pain, with an exception of faces pain intensity scales which is thought to measure both pain intensity and pain affect. But these assumption has not been directly tested for VRSs.
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