Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition, Beta (ICHD-3,''MOH is defined as the headache occurring on 15 or more days per month developing as a consequence of regular overuse of acute or symptomatic headache medication (on 10 or more, or 15 or more days per month, depending on the medication) for more than 3 months''. Prevalence is often reported as 1–2% but can be as high as 7% overall, with higher proportions among women and in those with a low socioeconomic position. It is not as prevalent as tension type headache or migraine but it is very disabling. The pathophysiology is complex and not completely known. It involves genetic and behavioral factors.
Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. Management of MOH consists of withdrawing pain medication, focusing on prophylactic and non-medical treatments, and limiting acute symptomatic medication.
Dysmenorrhea refers to the pain or discomfort associated with menstruation. About 50% of women experience some degree of dysmenorrhea and up to 10% have severe enough cramps to keep them from work or school for up to 3 days per month. Management of dysmenorrhoea aims to relieve pain or symptoms either by affecting the physiological mechanisms behind menstrual pain (such as prostaglandin production) or by relieving symptoms.
Dysmenorrhea, a painful menstruation, is a common gynecological condition which usually affects the women in the reproductive years. Menstrual cramps can occur a few days prior to the menstruation or even during the menstruation. Dysmenorrhea is further classified into 2 subcategories based on the history and the examination:
- Primary dysmenorrhea which occurs in the absence of pelvic pathology
- Secondary dysmenorrhea which occurs in the presence of pelvic pathology
Headache is the most common form of pain. Headaches are often related to stress, depression or anxiety. Non-pharmacological approach is the first line approach to manage headaches of all types. Keeping track on headache patterns and precipitating can be helpful.
Occurrence of headache is very common nowadays, even in kids. Parents usually consider these headaches as a severe problem in kids. Physical examination by doctor is preferred, that help decide whether neuro-imaging is required or not. Mostly, based on the diagnostic reports, treatment of headache is initiated.