Significance of chondroitin sulphate in osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that mostly affects cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. People with osteoarthritis often have joint pain and reduced motion. Unlike some other forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis affects only joints and not internal organs. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) being a natural glycosaminoglycan is found in the cartilage and extracellular matrix.
It was shown that clinical benefits in symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the finger, knee, hip joints, low back, facial joints and other diseases due to its anti-inflammatory activity. It was also shown that it helped in osteoarthritis by providing resistance to compression, maintaining the structural integrity, homeostasis, slows breakdown and reduced pain in sore muscles. It was most often used in combination with glucosamine to treat OA.
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) acted as a key role player in the regulation of cell development, cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Its commercial applications have been continuously explored in the engineering of biological tissues and its combination with other bio-polymers to formulated scaffolds which helped in the promotion and acceleration the regeneration of damaged structure. It was approved in the USA as a dietary supplement for OA, while it is used as a symptomatic slow-acting drug (SYSADOA) in Europe and some other countries. Any significant side effects or overdoses of CS have not been reported in clinical trials, suggesting its long-term safety. This reviewed the highlighted potential of CS, either alone or in combination with other drugs to attract the scientists engaged in OA treatment and management across the world.