Role of Tormentic Acid in Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the reason of pain and stiffness chiefly in the thumb, knee and hip joints which occurs commonly from middle age onwards. It is the degeneration of the joint cartilage and underlying bone. During a cartilage destruction, interleukin - 1beta (IL-1beta) is one potential key cytokine.
Pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Rosa rugosa, also called the red Japanese rose extracts when isolated, gives tomentic acid (TA) which is a triterpene having anti-inflammatory activity. Although in OA, the anti-inflammatory role of TA is still debatable. Hence, in this study it's contribution on IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in primary human OA chondrocytes has been elucidated. TA efficiently decreased the IL-1β-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13. The IL-1β-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by TA in OA chondrocytes. This was the first study to display the anti-inflammatory of TA in human OA chondrocytes. Therefore, in the treatment of OA, tormentic acid may be a promising agent.