Inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune illness when the immune system attacks its own tissues. TNFα, its receptors and adipokines are related with arthritis and nephritis. A study was conducted to evaluate the association of adipokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and its receptors with characteristics of SLE and the correlation between adipokines and TNF system.
To serve the purpose of this study, 136 women suffering from SLE, aged ≥18 years old, were analysed. Also, TNFα, soluble TNFα receptors 1 (sTNFR1), 2 (sTNFR2) and adipokines was investigated by ELISA kits.
The outcomes rendered lead to some important findings. The median (IQR) of age was 41.5 (33.0–49.7) years old and of disease duration 11.3 (7.8–15.8) years. The median (IQR) of disease activity was 0 (0–4) and of damage index was 2 (1–3). Nephritis and arthritis were associated with the peaked levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 (p < 0.001 for both), and sTNFR1 (p = 0.025) and TNFα (p = 0.014). In the patients not using antimalarial drugs, higher sTNFR1 levels (p = 0.04) were revealed. There was individualistic correlation between sTNFR1 (β = 0.253; p = 0.003) and sTNFR2 (β = 0.297; p < 0.001) levels and disease activity and damage index (sTNFR1: β = 0.367; p < 0.001; sTNFR2: β = 0.335; p < 0.001). The higher adiponectin levels were independently associated with nephritis (p = 0.009) and antimalarial drugs use (p = 0.015). A pragmatic correlation between leptin and sTNFR2 levels (p = 0.002) and between resistin levels and sTNFR1 (p < 0.001) and sTNFR2 (p < 0.001) was observed.
Therefore, it was well understood from this study that the correlation between adipokines and TNF system allows a better perception of the role of adipokines in the inflammatory response in SLE patients. The higher levels of sTNFR1 were correlated with lupus global activity and organ damage, recommending that this could be used as a marker of disease activity and prognosis. Adipokines, tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα) and its receptors, engage in the regulation of immune system and inflammation in immune disease.