IL-33: A promising therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis

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IL-33: A promising therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory disease including synovial proliferation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines production leading to cartilage and bone destruction. Several proinflammatory cytokines are considered critical in forming the inflammatory process of RA including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, and TNF-alpha. Approximately, 1% of the world's population is affected by this disease and is commonly associated with functional disability and reduced quality of life.

Cytokine-mediated immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases including RA. Recently, IL-1 family member IL-33 was recognized to perform as an inflammatory cytokine, exerted profound effects in human RA and experimental inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, administration of IL-33 leads to the development of severe inflammatory arthritis, suggesting that IL-33 may be therapeutically relevant in RA and the targeting of IL-33 or the IL-33 receptor has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases such as RA.

Recent studies reported the correlation of IL-33 with rheumatic diseases and most of them found that IL-33 expression levels were consistent with disease activity and development. Furthermore, evidence has indicated that IL-33-related treatment may ameliorate the pathogenic conditions and attenuate disease progression of those rheumatic diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the roles of IL-33 in rheumatic diseases would be beneficial to understand the pathogenesis and therapy of these diseases. It is hoped that this information may aid the development of novel therapeutic strategies for RA.

Revista brasileira de reumatologia
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