Role of inflammation in joint injury and post traumatic osteoarthritis
With the advancement of the disease and also the joint symptoms, inflammation is observed in the affected area. It is a variable attribute of osteoarthritis (OA). Also, with the likelihood for development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in joint fluids and tissues from patients with joint injuries, the signs of inflammation can be detected. After injury, inflammatory mechanisms are hypothesized to bestow to risk of OA development and progression.
In chronic progressive cartilage deterioration observed after a predisposing injury, the animal models of PTOA have been instrumental in grasping factors and mechanisms underlying the same. In the models of PTOA, many aspects of inflammation observed in humans comprise the synovial reaction, cytokine and chemokine production, cellular infiltration and inflammatory pathway activation. To gain knowledge about the impact of post-injury inflammatory response on PTOA development and progression, risk of progressive cartilage degeneration and development of chronic symptoms post-injury, numerous models are now being used.
These models reveal that as the joint injury occurs, a vigorous inflammatory response evaluates but in the later phases, it is then sustained at the lower extent. Hence this early inflammatory response leads to the development of PTOA features like cartilage erosion and is potentially remolded. But in the tissue repair, specific mediators may also govern it. For future prospects in modification of disease in PTOA, this piece of work may prove beneficial. Although, the optimal approach and timing of anti-inflammatory interventions after joint injury are yet to be resolved.