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Gout can be defined as an inflammatory arthritis that is caused by the deposition of mono-sodium urate crystals (MSU) in the synovial membrane, articular cartilage and periarticular tissues. It has been found to be more prevalent in men. Clinical measures and synovial fluid investigation to explore MSU crystals are used for the diagnosis of gout. However, gout may occasionally have uncharacteristic features which make it difficult to diagnose. In such circumstances, imaging methods play a vital role in confirming the diagnosis of gout.

Revista brasileira de reumatologia
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Headache is defined as a pain arising from the head or upper neck of the body. The pain originates from the tissues and structures that surround skull or brain because the brain itself has no nerves that give rise to the sensation of pain (pain fibers). Headaches can be classified as three types: 1) primary, 2) secondary, and 3) cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches.

Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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Cluster headaches occur as attacks of severe, one-sided headaches. Typically, a number of attacks occur over several weeks - about (cluster) of attacks. The headaches then usually go for weeks, months or years until a next cluster of headaches develops. Treatment options for cluster headache (CH) include acute, transitional and prophylactic strategies. A study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a single occipital nerve block (ONB) in patients with episodic (eCH) and chronic CH (cCH).

Cephalalgia
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A number of NSAIDs are recommended for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with knee osteoarthritis. In this study, the investigators have been successful in evaluating the efficacy and safety of most common NSAIDs celecoxib or naproxen

Int J Rheum Dis. 2015 May 20
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Both gabapentin and pregabalin are generally used as first-line treatments for diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, but mirogabalin has shown promise as a potential treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. This study has been designed to determine the safety and efficacy of mirogabalin so as to improve the management of chronic pain for people with diabetic neuropathy.

Diabetes Care 2014;37:3253–3261
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Lidocaine is an amide type local anesthetic medication and its efficacy in post neuropathic pain (PHN) with irritable nociceptor phenotype still need to be explored. This study was a great success in estimating its efficacy in PHN patients with irritable nociceptor phenotype.

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Tofacitinib is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Changes in serum creatinine levels with the administration of tofacitinib have created a need to fully understand the impact of tofacitinib on renal function. That is why; authors in this study have evaluated its effect on glomerular filtration rate. 

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A particular treatment does not produce same results in two different subtypes of a disease. This study has perfectly compared the efficacy of sumatriptan in treating migraine with aura and without aura.

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Treatment for fibromyalgia may behave differently in different subgroups. In this study, the researchers have tried to assess the comparative effectiveness of treatments for fibromyalgia in adult subgroups.

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Medical interventions alone are not enough for management of tension type headache. In comparison to medical interventions, the multimodal manual therapy has emerged safe and effective way to provide relief in patients of tension type headache.

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